Concept of Network
We explain what a network is and what types of networks there are. In addition, the different topologies and the elements that compose it.
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What is a Network?
In computing, a network (computer network) remains understood as the connection of many computers (or networks in turn) through wired or wireless devices, which through electrical impulses, electromagnetic waves or other physical means, allows them to receive information to be sent and received in data packets, to share their resources and to act as an organized whole.
Networks have processes for sending and receiving messages and a set of codes and standards that ensure that they remain understood by computers on the network (rather than others). These communication standards are called protocols, and the most common today are TCP / IP.
Building a network allows you to manage internal communication, share running programs or access the Internet, and even manage devices such as printers, scanners, and more: telecommunications, Internet, or various intranet companies or organizations.
The advent of networks has revolutionized the understanding of computing and opened up a new field within this restraint to meet the needs for improvement, security, and functioning of computer communication.
Types of Networks
The networks stay divided into:
LAN: Local Area Network. These are the smallest networks that we can install in our department.
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network. These are mid-sized networks, ideal for a college campus or multi-story library or commercial building, or even a neighborhood.
WAN: Wide area network. This is where the most extensive networks come into play, such as global networks or the Internet.
Networks can also be classified according to the physical connection method as follows:
Guided media. Networks that connect machines via physical cable systems: twisted pair, coaxial or optical fiber. It has the advantage of being faster, making less noise, but being less comfortable and practical.
Unguided media networks. Networks that establish the connection through distributed and area-wide systems: radio waves, infrared or microwave signals, such as satellite and Wi-Fi systems. They are a little gentler but much more convenient and practice.
There are three models of network topology or layout:
Bus networks. Also so-called linear, they have a server at the top of a consecutive line of clients, and a single communication channel called a bus or backbone.
Featured networks. Each computer has a serial connection to the server, which is in the middle of each one. All communication between clients must first take place through the server.
In the ring. They are also called circulars, which connect the clients and the server in a circuit. However, the server maintains its hierarchy on the system.
Elements of a Network
To set up a computer network, the following items are required:
Equipment. Devices and machines for establishing communication, such as network cards, modems and routers or repeater antennas, if wireless.
Software. Programs needed to manage hardware communications, such as the [Network] Operating System (NOS acronym: Network Operating System) and communication protocols like TCP / IP.
Server and clients. Servers process data flow over the [network] and respond to requests from other computers on the web, called clients or workstations. These allow users to access information and share resources managed by the server individually.
Transmission media. It refers to wiring or electromagnetic waves that can serve as a means of transmitting the message.
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